Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. up, densely hairy. (2010). When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Urban I, 1898-1928. Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. Plectranthus species are also used for dry season fodder (Lukhoba et al., 2006). Spreng. Flora Mesoamericana. P. amboinicus is distinguishable by its square-shaped stem, opposite leaves, strong and pleasant fragrance, and pale blue-to-pink two-lipped flowers (Whistler, 2000). Humbert H, 1951. It is used medicinally in Brazil for the treatment of skin ulcerations caused by Leishmania braziliensis, in Malaysia to treat burns and as a poultice for centipedes and scorpion bites, and in India, the juice of the leaves is used to treat skin allergies (Lukhoba et al., 2006). http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM, Forzza R, 2010. Govaerts R, 2014. > 0°C, dry winters), Widely cultivated in home gardens and commercially for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental use, Used medicinally in Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas, Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. P. amboinicus is possibly native to tropical Africa and is widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world (USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Family 175. National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. Risk of introduction for P. amboinicus is high, as the species is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as weedy and an environmental weed (Randall, 2012), and is known to be invasive outside of its native range including Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2014). Common Names. Other common names: Cuban oregano, Spanish/French thyme, Indian borage, Indian mint, country borage It’s origin is unknown, but it is likely native to India or Africa. It is also considered as a diuretic herbal agent and its leaves have a pungent taste and a pleasant odour. - Labiatae)., Paris, France: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle . Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and draft regional strategy. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) London, UK: Cassell. In Africa it is found at low altitudes in woodland or coastal bush, on rocky slopes and loamy or sandy flats (Roux, 2003). Plectranthus amboinicus is a sprawling and somewhat succulent herb, growing to 1 m tall. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Coleus scutellarioides, commonly known as coleus, is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae (the mint or deadnettle family), native to southeast Asia through to Australia. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Barbados: University of the West Indies. In Bolivia the species is cultivated in semideciduous forest (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). 103 (1), 1-24. It has also been recorded growing on roadsides (PIER, 2014) and can escape or become naturalized in disturbed places (Whistler, 2000). Spreng. , 2012. Leaves Photograph by: Mokkie. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. Variegated form Photograph by: Mokkie. Flowers are pale blue or mauve to It is considered a common weed in South Africa (Roux, 2003). pink, 8-12 mm long - the upper lip is up to 4.5 x 3 mm, erect, the lower The origin of P. amboinicus is unknown, but it may be native to Africa and possibly India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Among the several medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, Plectranthus amboinicus is known to possess anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-epileptic properties. This plant is nicknamed “amboinicus” from Ambon, an island where a botanist lives, his name is … Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Let’s start with what it is not. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 480 pp. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. 0.7 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. P. amboinicus is cultivated in gardens and commercial agricultural settings. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm. Plectranthus amboinicus (Cuban Oregano) Scientific Name. Family 175- Labiatae (Flora of Madagascar and the Comoros. Its most popular latin name is Plectranthus amboinicus, but this name is also used commonly, mistakenly for closely related species Plectranthus tomentosa, Plectrantus cremnus and their many hybrids. Although it is known to be cultivated in South America, the species was not included in Funk et al.’s (2007) work on the Guiana Shield or the Brazilian flora of Forzza et al. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. Leaves have stalks 1-4.5 cm long, densely velvety, like Common names for Plectranthus amboinicus: Barbados Thyme, Country Borage, Cuban Oregano, Five Seasons Herb, French Thyme, Indian Mint, Jamaican Thyme, Mexican Oregano, Soup Mint, Spanish Thyme, Plectranthus amboinicus is included in the following B and T … It can tolerate a range of soil conditions, shade, and moisture (Whistler, 2000). It competes with native flora by forming dense thickets (PIER, 2014) and can regenerate both vegetatively and by seed (Whistler, 2000; Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Leaves Photograph by: Mokkie. Leaf blade is fleshy, broadly ovate to circular, Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Flowers terminal, spicate, 10-20 cm long, densely pubescent, the verticils 10-20(or more)-flowered, subglobose, the bracts 3-4 mm long, hirsute and glandular; pedicels slender, hirsute, to 5 mm long; calyx campanulate, 1.5-4 mm long, hirsute and glandular, the upper lip erect, broadly ovate-oblong, the other teeth narrow, acute; corolla pale blue or mauve to pink, 8-12 mm long, the tube declinate, 3-4 mm long, expanding distally, pubescent without, the upper lip to 4.5 mm long, 3 mm wide, erect, puberulent, the lower lop to 5-6 mm long, 4 mm wide, concave; stamens with filaments mostly fused into a tube around the style. P. amboinicus is an aromatic herb listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” and is known to be invasive outside of its native range including Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2014). National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA. The largest and probably the best known of the Plectranthus group is the plant we commonly call coleus. Preferred Common Name. Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. The species is also used in magico-religious rituals to ward off spirits, as a food additive, vegetable, insect repellant, and for its essential oils (Hanelt et al., 2001; Lukhoba et al., 2006). USDA-ARS, 2014. Other are Coleus aromaticus, Coleus amboinicus, and Plectranthus aromaticus. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. Plectranthus amboinicus, once recognized as Coleus amboinicus, is a semi-succulent perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae which includes common herbs such as basil, mint, oregano, sage, rosemary, and thyme with a pungent oregano-like flavor and odor. They are thickly stu… The species is tolerant of some shade (PIER, 2014), preferring fertile, well-drained soils in partially shaded areas (Whistler, 2000). The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an Filaments of stamens are mostly fused into lip up to 5-6 x 4 mm, concave. Since it is a popular and widely used herb, it may continue to escape cultivation and invade native ecosystems. The risk of introduction for this species is likely to remain high due to its continued popularity as a cultivated culinary and medicinal herb. Common Name : Cuban Oregano, Indian Borage, Indian Mint, Mexican Mint Plant Family : Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Plant Form : Succulents Occurrence (Special Areas) : Indroda Park About Plectranthus amboinicus Plant : Habit : A sprawling, perennial and succulent herb with short hairs and fleshy stems. View other plants in this family QR code link View other plants in this genus http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Humbert H, 1951. The margins are coarsely crenate to dentate-crenate except in the base. Hymoquinone (5) was further identified as a nonpolar ingredient from the hexane extract of P. amboinicus to suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Common names: African thyme, French thyme, country borage, Indian borage, Indian mint, broad-leaf thyme, soup mint (Eng. The species P. amboinicus was originally classified under the genus Coleus by Loureiro in 1790 but was moved to the Plectranthus genus by Sprengel in 1825, although both names are sometimes seen in the literature today. Flora of South Africa. The origin of P. amboinicus is thought to be tropical Africa, from whence it was introduced into India and then various parts of Asia by early explorers (Hanelt et al., 2001; Roux, 2003; Wyk, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014).). Botanical name: Coleus amboinicus Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family) Synonyms: Plectranthus amboinicus, Coleus aromaticus, Plectranthus aromaticus. P. amboinicus occurs at low altitudes; in Mesoamerica the species grows from 0 to 800 m and in Bolivia it has been recorded at 0-500 m (Roux, 2003; Bolivia Checklist, 2014; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). Spreng. This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM, Govaerts R, 2014. Online database. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Berlin, Germany: Springer. Online Database. In Brazil, the species is often grown in subsistence agriculture (Wyk, 2005). Stearn WT, 1992. University of Hawaii, 2014. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Plectranthus: a review of ethnobotanical uses. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. http://www.nhbs.com/title/79635/flore-de-madagascar-et-des-comores-fam-175. For many years, the genus and species of this plant was Coleus blumei. rhombic, or kidney-shaped, 4-10 cm long, 3-9 cm broad, coarsely toothed at P. amboinicus is widely cultivated as a medicinal plant, potherb, ornamental, and condiment in tropical regions around the world. glasshouse production), Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Spreng; Synonyms : Coleus amboinicus Lour. In the USA, the species occurs as a perennial shrub (USDA-NRCS, 2014). Typically growing to 60–75 cm (24–30 in) tall and wide, it is a bushy, woody-based evergreen perennial, widely grown for the highly decorative variegated leaves found in cultivated varieties. P. amboinicus has spread to most tropical parts of the world through intentional human introduction for cultivation. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. http://www.tropicos.org/. It is shade tolerant (PIER, 2014). Plectranthus is a large genus of plants native to areas in the Southern Hemisphere containing approximately 350 species. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, CABI, Undated. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ed. P. amboinicus is of unknown origin but possibly Africa and India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014), and it has since been distributed and cultivated pantropically. From there it went to Solenostemon scutellarioides, but recently the … Paris, France: Imprimerie officielle; Muse´um national d'histoire naturelle. can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game. a tube around style. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Plectranthus is a paleotropical genus comprising around 300 species of annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, often succulent (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf. Lukhoba CW; Simmonds MSJ; Paton AJ, 2006. Famille 175. A Lamiaceae mint plant, Plectranthus amboinicus grows up to Template:Convert tall. Tropical ornamentals. We then synthesized 2-alkylidenyl-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones as the designed biomimetics of thymoquinone, and found that compounds 8a, 8b and 8d were more potent TNF-α inhibitors USDA-ARS, 2014. 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