Read Later. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication,[146] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness. The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities. [201], Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences. [105] This behaviour cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen. [24], Suda writes that, also, Anaximenes of Lampsacus was one of his teachers. [199] He had a calmer side—perceptive, logical, and calculating. [3] Historians vary in their assessments of primary sources about Alexander's death, which results in different views. [180] Craterus started to carry out Alexander's commands, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus. Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modelled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style. [31] His physical deformities and symptoms leading up to his death are what lead experts to believe this. At the time of the death of Calanus, Alexander, however, did not have any plan to go to Babylon. The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara (a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan), to come to him and submit to his authority. [171][172][173] In addition, Leosthenes, also, likened the anarchy between the generals, after Alexander's death, to the blinded Cyclops "who after he had lost his eye went feeling and groping about with his hands before him, not knowing where to lay them". "[117] A similar slaughter followed at Ora. [154][155] Another poisoning explanation put forward in 2010 proposed that the circumstances of his death were compatible with poisoning by water of the river Styx (modern-day Mavroneri in Arcadia, Greece) that contained calicheamicin, a dangerous compound produced by bacteria. [19], Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. [27], Other causes that have been put forward include acute pancreatitis provoked by "heavy alcohol consumption and a very rich meal",[28] acute endocarditis,[17] schistosomiasis brought on by Schistosoma haematobium,[17] and porphyria. The Thracian Maedi revolted against macedonia and Alexander reacted by defeated them gloriously and founding a city. [164], While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. [163] Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy, since burying the prior king was a royal prerogative. [223] The Roman era writer Athenaeus says, based on the scholar Dicaearchus, who was Alexander's contemporary, that the king "was quite excessively keen on boys", and that Alexander sexually embraced his eunuch Bagoas in public. [84] Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. [28], Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs. 32 years old. Answers (1) Breelle June 12, 8:18 PM. [144][175], Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. His father was away to fight a war in persia and Alexander was supposed to rule in his absence. [271] The colloquial form of his name in modern Greek ("O Megalexandros") is a household name, and he is the only ancient hero to appear in the Karagiozis shadow play. [57], News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority. 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