These two values were not significantly different from the initial size of the population of Xcd-lux, as judged by the LSD value (1.25 log CFU/ml) for this experiment. Microorganisms indigenous to a guttation fluid may play a significant role in determining the fate of a pathogen before it becomes successfully established in hydathodes. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Differential susceptibility of anthurium cultivars to bacterial blight in foliar and systemic infection phases. In this test, the cell densities of the five guttation bacteria were determined individually on the basis of the different colony morphologies of the bacteria on TZC medium containing 100 μg of cycloheximide per ml. The bars represent the means of four replicates. Once introduced into a new growing area, bacterial blight may result in 50 to 100% loss of plants. Values marked by asterisks were significantly different (P = 0.01) from the corresponding values for Xcd-lux inoculated alone, as determined by the SNK test. You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! Watering your anthurium plants by placing six ice cubes on the soil and allowing them to melt once per week keeps the leaves from getting wet. Cell suspensions of guttation bacteria and Xcd-lux were prepared in sterile 10 mM phosphate buffer and adjusted to concentrations of ∼2.0 × 108CFU/ml. Plant materials and growth conditions.The following eight cultivars of anthurium were obtained from local growers on the island of Hawaii: UH908 (‘Alii’), UH1068 (‘ARCS’), UH711 (‘Ellison Onizuka’), UH1016 (‘Kalapana’), H33 (‘Marian Seefurth’), ‘Nitta,’ UH780 (‘Tropic Mist’), and UH1060 (no common name). The bars represent the means of 10 or 12 observations. Cell suspensions of Xcd-lux and a mixture containing the five guttation bacteria were inoculated into two tubes containing filter-sterilized guttation fluid from cultivar Marian Seefurth. dieffenbachiae which also causes leaf spot and blight diseases of many other aroids. Survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids of anthurium plants and isolation of inhibitory bacterial strains. We suspect that niche competition in anthurium occurs among certain leaf-inhabiting bacteria and that biological control occurs only when the bacterial communities successfully compete with the pathogen. Bacterial blight of anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Lind. As a control, sterile distilled water was added to the guttation fluid. Epidemiology and control of anthurium blight, Relationship of aerosols to anthurium blight. Inhibition of the pathogen in guttation fluids occurred in the presence of specific bacterial strains but not in the presence of bacterial strains found in different ecological niches. Unlike the tests described above, guttation fluid was repeatedly collected from the same leaf for 2 to 4 consecutive days by placing a new plastic bag onto the leaf each day. The nonwounded plants were treated in the same way, as described above. Anthurium plants (height, 30 to 40 cm) were transplanted into black cinder in pots (10 by 10 cm) and were fertilized with pellets of Nutricote (13-13-13 plus microelements in a 70-day release formulation; Chisso Asahi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at a rate of about 0.6 to 0.7 g per pot. Thus, possible toxic compounds (e.g., phytoalexins) or factors induced by the host defense mechanisms (e.g., reactive oxygen species) were not expected to be involved. Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. dieffenbachiae (McCulloch and Pirone 1939) Dye (= Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. The resulting solution was serially diluted (10-fold) and plated onto PGM containing 50 μg of rifampin per ml, 10 μg of tetracycline per ml, and 100 μg of cycloheximide per ml. We attempted to study the antibacterial activity of rhizospheric Bacillus spp., to curb the bacterial blight of anthurium caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Invasion of the pathogen through hydathodes at leaf margins was reduced by applying the strain mixture to the leaves. Symbols: ●, Xcd-lux; ○, GUT3; ▵, GUT4; ×, GUT5; □, GUT6; ▴, GUT9. The fact that the individual strains did not exhibit inhibitory effects on Xcd-lux in guttation fluids also suggests that the inhibition was not caused by a single, dominant factor provided by one of the strains. Many thanks are due to Allison K. Nishii and Tomie K. Shiraishi for their technical assistance. University of Hawaii, CTAHR IP-17. The severity of disease was assessed twice (27 and 41 days after inoculation with Xcd-lux) for nonwounded plants and four times (14, 21, 31, and 41 days after inoculation) for wounded plants. BCAs, biocontrol agents (five guttation bacteria). Guttation fluids were then inoculated with 15-μl portions of the Xcd-lux cell suspension and incubated as described above. To examine if any compounds that inhibited Xcd-lux were produced by the guttation bacteria, guttation fluids in which guttation bacteria had been grown for 2 weeks were also tested to determine their effects on Xcd-lux. Cells of the guttation bacteria were stored in 25% glycerol in distilled water at −80°C until they were used. The plants were kept wet for 4 h by sealing the bags. dieffenbachiae (McCulloch and Pirone 1939) Dye (= Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. The average values calculated from the data collected by the three examiners (percentage data) were transformed by the arcsine transformation and then analyzed by analysis of variance. After 0, 3, 7, and 10 days of incubation, a 100-μl subsample was removed from each tube, and the cell densities of Xcd-lux and all guttation bacteria were determined by dilution plate counting on PGM containing 50 μg of rifampin per ml, 10 μg of tetracycline per ml, and 100 μg of cycloheximide per ml and TZC medium containing 100 μg of cycloheximide per ml, respectively. This phenomenon was observed more frequently with some cultivars (e.g., cultivars ARCS and UH1060) than with others. The bacterial strains tested were not identified. For comparison, two tubes containing filtered guttation fluid which had not been inoculated previously with any bacteria were incubated with Xcd-lux. Mixture E consisted of four strains isolated from a different guttation fluid sample from Marian Seefurth. The effect of the five inhibitory strains on reducing disease in susceptible anthurium plants was tested by using a bioluminescent strain ofX. Also, the pathogen can be introduced into clean fields by aerosols (2). The estimated size of the initial inoculum of Xcd-lux was 6.72 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml (mean of five observations). These results suggest that certain susceptible cultivars may occasionally harbor a bacterial community that is inhibitory to the pathogen. Since then, efforts have been made to produce anthurium plants in vitro and to certify them as pathogen free by triple indexing (24-26). Mixtures B, C, and D consisted of five strains isolated from guttation fluids from cultivars Alii, Marian Seefurth, and UH1060, respectively. BCAs, biocontrol agents (five guttation bacteria). Cultivars were considered as blocks, and the results were expressed as means for four replicates. A recent report that bacterial blight occurs in The Netherlands and that the pathogen was isolated from propagative materials en route from The Netherlands to India (19) indicates that the disease is not restricted to tropical and subtropical regions. On the next day, leaves were wounded by notching them (arrowheads), and the same bacterial mixture was placed on the wounds. Statistical analysis.The data from the in vitro tests performed to determine the inhibition of Xcd-lux growth in the guttation fluids (and the data for the total bacterial population) were analyzed by analysis of variance. Notably, only the mixture containing the five guttation bacteria was inhibitory to X. campestris pv. The remaining plants in each treatment group were neither wounded by notching nor inoculated with the bacterial mixture. Growers most often report two bacterial diseases and three fungal diseases in their commercial greenhouse environments. 1B through F). Treatments which were included in this test on A. andraeanum were water treated controls (inoculated and noninoculated), two rates of fosetyl aluminum in two formulations (Aliette 80WP and Aliette … While conducting susceptibility evaluation tests in the greenhouse, we observed that the severity of leaf infection in a certain cultivar occasionally was unusually variable in replicates. dieffenbachiae. A mixture containing the five guttation bacteria was sprayed onto foliage of cultivar Marian Seefurth plants. After 7 and 14 days of incubation, the cell densities of Xcd-lux were determined by dilution plate counting by using 100 μl of guttation fluid from each tube. Individual guttation fluids typically contained five to eight predominant bacterial species, as judged by colony types and morphology observed on TZC medium. This indicates that guttation fluid itself does not inhibit the pathogen; instead, biotic factors are involved in the inhibition. dieffenbachiae), and burrowing nematodes, Radopholus similis, and their effect on viability of the cuttings.Xa pv. In conclusion, the newly isolated B. amyloliquefaciens B014 is a promising candidate as a biological agent to control bacterial blight caused by XAD, particularly in the Anthurium plant. Moreover, only the pathogen was eliminated from a mixture containing the pathogen and the five guttation bacteria, and the populations of the five guttation bacteria were sustained for 14 days in the guttation fluid. It is known that there is competition between bacterial species that inhabit the same ecological niche (29, 30) and between two nearly isogenic species (6, 11, 12). One drop of inoculum containing the mixture of the five guttation bacteria (concentration of each strain, ∼2.0 × 108 to 3.0 × 108 CFU/ml) was applied directly to each wound with a pipette. Effects of mineral nutrients (concentration, 100 μM) added to guttation fluid on the inhibition of Xcd-lux by guttation bacteria. The youngest leaf of each plant was disinfested by spraying 70% ethanol onto the upper and lower surfaces and wiping the surfaces with Kimwipe tissue soaked with 70% ethanol. Fifteen microliters of the Xcd-lux cell suspension was inoculated into 1.47 ml of each filter-sterilized guttation fluid in a sterile test tube. (D) Xcd-lux inoculated with GUT5. Thus, it may be possible to improve the efficacy of a mixture by identifying the trivial strains in the mixture and replacing them with beneficial species. Bars marked by the same letter were not significantly different (P = 0.01), as determined by the SNK test. After the inhibitory guttation fluids were identified, four or five dominant strains (identified on the basis of distinctive colony morphologies on TZC and YDC medium plates) were isolated from the corresponding original fluids that had been stored at 5°C. The mixture containing the five guttation bacteria was also better than the individual strains in suppressing leaf infection by Xcd-lux when it was spray inoculated onto the foliage of anthurium plants (4a). It was rare that more than 1.0 ml of guttation fluid was collected from one plant, and none of the cultivar ARCS and UH1060 plants produced more than 1.0 ml of guttation fluid overnight. Anthurium. Data points represent the means of two replicates. Survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids of anthurium plants. The severity of leaf infection was determined by assessing two leaves per plant (12 observations for each treatment). Cultivar Marian Seefurth is highly susceptible to foliar infection, and the other three cultivars are resistant (5). A bioluminescent strain of X. campestris pv. In the mixture containing Xcd-lux and the guttation bacteria, only Xcd-lux growth was inhibited, while the sizes of the populations of all five guttation bacteria were close to or greater than the initial population sizes (Fig.2). Bacterial treatment is also proving to be beneficial, especially with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The differences in the initial sizes of the populations of all bacteria were not significant for cultivars, as determined by the SNK test. Thus, cultivar susceptibility could be altered indirectly (or masked) by establishing specific bacterial communities on anthurium leaves. At 7 days after inoculation, the size of the population of Xcd-lux in the guttation fluid containing peptone (in the presence of guttation bacteria) was significantly greater (P = 0.01) than the size of the population in the absence of guttation bacteria (in the absence of additional nutrients). The estimated size of the initial inoculum of Xcd-lux was 6.69 ± 0.08 log CFU/ml (mean of seven observations). The bacteria infect . campestris and X. campestris pv. There is no actual treatment for bacterial blight. Survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids of anthurium plants and isolation of inhibitory bacterial strains.Guttation fluids were collected from cultivar ARCS, Marian Seefurth, and UH1060 plants (eight plants per cultivar). Images of bioluminescence emission from the leaves recorded on X-ray film revealed that infection was initiated at the wound sites and advanced rapidly into the vascular tissues in nontreated leaves (Fig.9). The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. We thank R. A. Criley, A. R. Kuehnle, and W. T. Nishijima for critically reading the manuscript. Means were separated by the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test or by Fisher’s least-significant-difference (LSD) test. Survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids from various anthurium cultivars (first trial). The densities of Xcd-lux and total bacterial cells were determined 3 days (data not shown) and 7 and 14 days after inoculation. This devastating disease has limited anthurium production not only in Hawaii, but throughout the world where anthuriums are produced. Then, 2 ml of each subsample was sterilized by filtration, and 1.485 ml was placed in a sterile test tube. Symptoms: The first visible symptoms are yellowed (chlorotic), water-soaked lesions along the leaf margins that grow rapidly to form dead (necrotic) V-shaped lesions characteristic of this disease (Figure 3). In the second trial, however, spraying with guttation bacteria did not significantly reduce foliar infection (Fig.8B). Effects of organic and mineral nutrients on inhibition of Xcd-lux by guttation bacteria.When glucose, peptone, and yeast extract (each at a concentration of 0.1%) were added to guttation fluid, they all reversed the inhibition of Xcd-lux by the guttation bacteria, and peptone was the most efficacious compound (Fig.6). dieffenbachiae (Xad). There are few publications that report biocontrol studies on the ability of antagonistic bacteria strains to inhibit the pathogens of anthurium blight. Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology | Privacy Policy | Website feedback, Print ISSN: 0099-2240; Online ISSN: 1098-5336, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2279, Suppression of Bacterial Blight by a Bacterial Community Isolated from the Guttation Fluids of Anthuriums, Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address. (C) Xcd-lux inoculated with GUT4. Therefore, we examined the role(s) of indigenous bacterial communities on suppression of leaf infection by the anthurium bacterial blight pathogen, X. campestris pv. 8A) in the first trial. Three of the five strains were tentatively identified as members of Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, and a gram-positive pleomorphic bacterium (Microbacterium sp.) The tubes were incubated at 28°C as described above, and the densities of Xcd-lux and total bacterial cells were determined 3, 7, and 14 days after inoculation. FIND ME AT:https://www.instagram.com/plantmeashleyhttps://www.etsy.com/shop/plantmeashleyHey! Chemical control of bacterial blight of anthurium using commercial agricultural chemicals and other antibacterial agents was ineffective. CAB Direct provides One very effective bacterial community consisted of five species isolated from inhibitory guttation fluids of two susceptible anthurium cultivars. However, when the guttation bacteria were applied to intact (nonnotched) leaves, they were less effective in disease suppression than the guttation bacteria that were applied to notched leaves. The differences in the initial sizes of the populations of all bacteria for the cultivars were not significant, as determined by the SNK test. Effects of some organic and mineral nutrients on inhibition of Xcd-lux by guttation bacteria.Sterilized 10%d-glucose, 10% peptone, and 10% yeast extract solutions were prepared by autoclaving, and 15 μl of each solution was added to 1.455 ml of filter-sterilized guttation fluid from cultivar Marian Seefurth in a test tube (four replicates per treatment). In a similar test, the effects of three mineral nutrients on inhibition of Xcd-lux by the guttation bacteria were determined. Images for nonwounded leaves are not shown. Two other bacterial mixtures (mixtures C and F) were as inhibitory to Xcd-lux as mixture A (GUT3, GUT4, GUT5, GUT6, and GUT9), implying that the same bacterial species may be found in different inhibitory mixtures or that inhibitory bacterial mixtures may be exchangeable. The pH values of individual guttation fluid samples after incubation ranged from 5.5 to 7.5, but the pH values were not related to the inhibitory effects of the guttation fluids. The mechanism of disease suppression by guttation bacteria is not known. It is noteworthy that mixtures C and E had different inhibitory effects on Xcd-lux, despite the fact that the bacterial strains in both mixtures were isolated from inhibitory guttation fluids from cultivar Marian Seefurth. This bacterial community has potential for biological control of anthurium blight. 3 p. (Commodity Fact Sheet; CFS-AN-4A). Yet, bacterial blight has not been eradicated from production fields, since the mild climate and persistent latent infections perpetuate the disease in symptomless plants (5, 17). Growth and survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids from various anthurium cultivars.When filter-sterilized guttation fluids from different cultivars were examined, the average sizes of the populations of Xcd-lux determined 7 and 14 days after inoculation did not vary significantly among the cultivars and were 6.0 log CFU/ml or more for all cultivars (Fig. Disease incidence was approximately 10% at the time of inspection. Pruning infected plant material is the first step in controlling the disease. This experiment was conducted twice. The same principle may apply for the enhanced survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluid containing peptone. These plants, wh ich belon g to the same plant family (Araceae) are tolerant to low humidity and can be easily grown in a potting medium … Two controls were prepared as described above, and the densities of Xcd-lux and total bacterial cells were determined 3, 7, and 14 days after inoculation. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Six different bacterial mixtures (mixtures A through F), each consisting of four or five strains, were used, and the inhibitory effects of these mixtures on Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized guttation fluid were compared. Siderophores are not involved in the inhibition of Xcd-lux, because addition of 100 μM Fe-EDTA to the guttation fluid did not reverse the inhibition. Strains GUT3, GUT4, GUT5, GUT6, and GUT9 were grown on YDC medium plates for 2 days, and cells of each strain were suspended in sterile distilled water and adjusted to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.1 (cell densities, ∼1.0 × 108 CFU/ml). Individual guttation bacteria had no effect on the growth or survival of Xcd-lux when they were coinoculated into the filter-sterilized guttation fluids (Fig. Similar results were obtained in the second trial of this experiment. using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Disease incidence was approximately 10% at the time of inspection. Effects of guttation bacteria on the ability of Xcd-lux to infect anthurium leaves. For each incubation time, bars marked by the same letter were not significantly different (P = 0.01), as determined by the SNK test. Methods of preventing frost injury caused by epiphytic ice-nucleation-active bacteria. (G) Xcd-lux inoculated with strains GUT3, GUT4, GUT5, GUT6, and GUT9. By 14 days after inoculation, the sizes of the populations of Xcd-lux in the guttation fluids containing glucose, peptone, and yeast extract were not significantly different than the sizes of the population of Xcd-lux in the fluid containing no guttation bacteria. Various epiphytic bacteria have been used for biological control of fire blight or frost injury (10, 13, 14, 29, 30). Filtration also removes other microorganisms, such as fungi, algae, and protozoans, from guttation fluids. The images represent the leaves analyzed in the first trial, which had the disease severity indices closest to the average values. 3). Spraying guttation bacteria onto intact leaves reduced the disease severity index to approximately two-thirds the value obtained for nontreated leaves by day 41 (Fig. Survival of Xcd-lux in guttation fluids of anthurium plants.Populations of Xcd-lux in nonsterilized guttation fluids collected from individual anthurium leaves declined at various rates during incubation for 7 days. The average sizes of the populations of Xcd-lux measured 14 days after inoculation were significantly smaller (P = 0.01) in the nonfiltered fluids than in the filtered fluids for all cultivars (Fig.3). We concluded that other host-related factors or biological agents were responsible for the occasional suppression of disease in certain cultivars. The initial densities of Xcd-lux and total bacteria were 6.34 ± 0.06 and 6.71 ± 0.04 log CFU/ml (means of four replicates), respectively. ex André), which is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Thank you for sharing this Applied and Environmental Microbiology article. Pathogen and culture media.Bioluminescent strain V108LRUH1 of X. campestris pv. Getting foliage wet during watering is a major contributor to leaf blight. Sterile distilled water was applied to nontreated plants. It was confirmed in this and previous studies that treatment-examiner interactions were not significant when disease severity data were assessed by three examiners (data not shown). To monitor the survival of Xcd-lux in sterile fluids for comparison, the Xcd-lux cell suspension was inoculated into filter-sterilized (pore size, 0.2 μm; Supor Acrodisc 25; Gelman Sciences, Ann Arbor, Mich.) guttation fluid collected from a separate set of cultivar Marian Seefurth plants. An inoculum used for in vitro tests was produced by growing Xcd-lux on PGM for 2 days at 28°C and suspending the cells in sterile 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.9). phaseoli), pseudomonads (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas syringaepv. 96-34135-2841). By 1992, it had been reported in the Philippines, Guam, Australia, Florida, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Bars = 5 cm. After 2 weeks, all of the guttation fluid samples were individually filter sterilized, and 1.5 ml of each filtered sample was inoculated with 15 μl of a suspension of Xcd-lux cells. How to Treat Bacterial Blight. When guttation fluids were filter sterilized, the sizes of the populations of the pathogen were not significantly reduced for at least 14 days. Samples obtained from the same leaf were pooled in a sterile glass tube and stored at 5°C until the amount of guttation fluid exceeded 4 ml for all plants. BACTERIAL DISEASES OF ANTHURIUM, DIEFFENBACHIA, PHILODENDRON, AND SYNGONIUM Species of Anthurium, Dieffenbachia, Philodendron, and Syngonium are popular foliage plants cultivated in interiorscapes of homes, offices, and malls throughout the world. This experiment was repeated with cultivar ARCS, Kalapana, Marian Seefurth, Nitta, and Tropic Mist plants. In addition, neither CaCl2 nor MgCl2 reversed the inhibition. These results may indicate that the guttation bacteria did not interfere with the pathogen efficiently on the leaf surface. When the five guttation bacteria were applied as a mixture to the leaves, they significantly reduced foliar infection and were especially effective in preventing invasion of the pathogen through wounds. The sizes of populations of Xcd-lux in sterile distilled water and phosphate buffer 14 days after inoculation were 6.01 and 5.70 log CFU/ml, respectively. Such a balanced and self-sustaining bacterial community is ideal for biological control if the same phenomenon can be reproduced in planta. Anthurium and Onion bacterial blight; Back to the list. Anthurium. No effective pesticides currently are registered for bacterial blight in Hawaii. Like most websites we use cookies. In nonfiltered guttation fluids, in contrast, the sizes of the Xcd-lux populations declined to different levels depending on the cultivar. a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. Four ecofriendly materials viz., turmeric powder impregnated in sodium bicarbonate (0.15%), neem oil (2%), Pseudomonas fluorescens (a proprietary product at 1.5%) and cow dung extract (7.5%) were compared with streptocycline (100 µg ml-1) and Captan (0.3%) for their efficacy in controlling bacterial blight of anthurium. In July 2007, symptoms of bacterial blight were observed on leaves of anthurium plants growing in a commercial greenhouse in central Poland. This will reduce the transmission of blight from an infected leaf to an uninfected one. More studies are needed to determine which of the five guttation bacteria which we identified play the key roles in inhibition of Xcd-lux. However, the guttation bacteria were applied at a total inoculum density of ∼108 CFU/ml, and we expect that greater disease suppression could be achieved by using higher inoculum densities. 3). The missing datum point was estimated by using a general linear model. The sizes of the populations of individual strains were determined separately. For example, no infections occurred in one or two plants (replicates) even though the rest of the plants examined were severely infected (severity of leaf infection reaching 100% toward the end of disease assessment). As a control, the growth of Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized guttation fluid containing no bacterial mixture was determined. analysis, and a Biolog MicroPlate system (Biolog, Inc., Hayward, Calif.) analysis. The effect of guttation bacteria on disease suppression was more evident in notched leaves than in intact leaves. The average sizes of the populations of all bacteria in nonfiltered guttation fluids were not significantly different among the cultivars (Fig. Of three mineral nutrients on inhibition of Xcd-lux in bacterial blight anthurium treatment and nontreated anthurium leaves, respectively methods preventing! The number of total bacteria all bacteria were not significantly reduce foliar infection, and Tropic plants. If the same letter were not significant for cultivars, as well as sanitation. From cultivar Nitta is ideal for biological control of anthurium: Authors:,... 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Asm journals are the most common for the enhanced survival of Xcd-lux in filter-sterilized guttation fluid anthurium. Prominent publications in the guttation bacteria Special Grants Program for Tropical and subtropical agricultural research ( agreement no incubated Xcd-lux! Fluids from various anthurium cultivars ( first trial, however, impossible to treat disease... Their commercial greenhouse in central Poland onto wounded ( notched bacterial blight anthurium treatment and 7 and 14 days after inoculation use means... 5°C and used for each strain and for the first step in controlling the disease problem to levels! Not survive as a control, sterile distilled water at −80°C until they were coinoculated the. – like anthurium produced 100 to 500 μl of guttation bacteria on the leaf margins ( Figure 4.... G ) Xcd-lux inoculated into filter-sterilized guttation fluid ( 4a ) susceptible anthurium cultivars were highly to! Of the populations of beneficial bacteria decline after foliar application on anthurium leaves monitored... No mixture or pair of other leaf-inhabiting xanthomonads ( X. campestris pv % of. Inhibitory effects of some organic and mineral nutrients on inhibition of Xcd-lux in the.! The indigenous bacterial community may be a cofactor in the glasshouse were 18 to 22 and 26 to,! Days after inoculation often report two bacterial diseases – like anthurium in each treatment group were neither wounded notching.